Anderson was made to wait until the final delivery of his 143rd test match but eventually took his wicket tally to 564 as he knocked back the middle stump of India tailender Mohammed Shami to clinch a victory for his side.
The 36-year-old Lancastrian had begun the day level on 563 with Australian great Glenn McGrath having taken two wickets the previous evening at the end of a day in which best friend Alastair Cook made an emotional farewell century.
He is now fourth on the all-time list behind a trio of spinners — Muttiah Muralitharan (800), Shane Warne (708) and Anil Kumble (619).
Anderson was given a standing ovation as he left the field with Cook, England’s most-capped test player, record run scorer and century-maker.
They have been mainstays of the England side for more than a decade, playing key roles in four Ashes series wins.
Former skipper Cook announced his retirement from international cricket after the fourth test.
Anderson was close to tears after finishing the series as the leading wicket-taker with 24 in five tests.